Water Sanitation and Hygiene
1. Water resources are essential for satisfying basic human needs, health and food production, energy, the restoration and maintenance of ecosystems and for social and economic development in general. According to estimations by the UN, more people die presently due to insufficient access to safe water and basic sanitation.
The development, management, protection and use of water so as to contribute to the eradication of poverty and the promotion of food security are an exceptionally important goal. The role of ground water, rivers, streams, springs and wetlands, forests and other vegetation and other parts of their ecosystems in the water cycle and their importance to water quality and quantity should be acknowledged and protected.
Safe water and basic sanitation are basic human right as enshrined in "The Constitution of Kenya 2010, 43(1)(d)and should therefore be accessible and affordable to all. This is important in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the National targets in our country’s economic blueprint, the Kenya Vision 2030
The County Government is mandated to undertake planning, coordination, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of Water sanitation and hygiene projects for socio-economic development within Nyamira County.
2. Vision statement.
A county with equitable and sustainable management and use for water resources for social economic development.
To provide sustainable, reliable, efficient and cost effective water supply systems that deliver adequate quantity and quality of water to satisfy domestic, agricultural, industrial and commercial purposes for improved quality of life for all.
¨ To develop water/sewerage and irrigation physical infrastructure,
¨ To enhance adoption of modern technologies in water, irrigation and waste water management
¨ To improve efficiency and Capacity in Water/waste water and Irrigation/ Drainage projects to achieve better Service delivery.
¨ To improve water scheme management and supervision services
¨ To enhance stakeholders participation and collaborative efforts
¨ To improve business orientation in the sector
¨ To develop Human Resources.
¨ To enhance the Water Act 2002 legal framework
¨ To prepare Water and Irrigation related bills for Legislation and Amendments.
3. Current Status
Nyamira County is endowed with natural water resources that include rivers, shallow wells, springs, dams, pans and boreholes whose availability varies considerably between seasons as well as across regions depending on the time of the year. Naturally, these water resources are in abundance during the wet period of the year and get scarce during the dry season. Most parts of the County have two main rainy seasons, i.e. the long rains being between March and May while the short rains fall within the months of October and November without any distinct dry spell. Currently majority of the residents in the county depend on protected and unprotected springs for their supply needs whereas another good percentage depend on shallow wells. A small percentage of people are served with piped water which is below 10%. The county since inception has constructed a number medium water supplies. The county does not have formal sewerage treatment works but more than 85% of the population has pit latrines with about 2% having on site septic tanks.
3.1 Water Supply Schemes
To ensure continued access to safe water for domestic use and other purposes (including livestock and poultry keeping, small scale irrigation, fisheries, etc.), communities in various parts in the County have formed groups and established vibrant rural water schemes that ensure continued access to potable water throughout the year. Most of these water facilities have been supported directly by the county government and/or donor funding as well as the community’s cash and in kind contributions.
3.2 Water Sources
|Water Source Type||Number||Remarks|
|Permanent rivers (traversing the region)||7||R.Sondu, Gucha, Charachani, Eyaka, Nyabomite, Esise,Kemera|
|Boreholes||26||Some boreholes are low yielding|
|Shallow wells||5,800||Belong to individuals|
|Dams||7||Most are silted|
|% population||Time Taken to Fetch Water||Remarks|
|7.8% of the population||1 - 4 minutes||
collecting water from the nearest water point
|2.4% of the population||5-14 minutes|
|49.3 of the population||15-29 minutes|
|30.5% of the population||30 -59 minutes|
|Only 13.4% of the population||more than 1 hr to fetch water|
The County economy primarily depends on the natural resource base. Increasing access to sustainable water is a priority of the government within the existing policy framework. The main challenges facing improvement of access to water resources include: inadequate funding, poor local ownership of projects and planting of blue gum trees along riverbanks and other riparian areas.
The county is in the process of preparing a county water, sanitation and hygiene policy which will mainly focus on sustainability of the projects and resource conservation. This will be based on the following principles :
6.2Manga Water Supply.
6.3 Miriri Borehole Water Supply
6.4 Esani Secondary School Spring.
The school currently collects water for its domestic use from a protected spring situated just outside the compound. The school wishes to have the water tapped from within the school compound for convenience purposes.
In order to meet the water requirements of the school, the Water Department has constructed the following works:
6.5 Mekenene Water Project
6.6 Isinta Borehole.
6.7 Ekerenyo Spring
6.8 Nyagwacha ws
6.9. Nyamira Urban Water Supply Scheme
In an effort to improve the water supply within the Nyamira Town and its environs, the Department purchased a booster pump at a cost of Kshs 1.2 million for the intake unit to pump more raw water into the treatment works. Installation of this pump has since improved the volume of water that is treated thus increasing the amount of water that is distributed to consumers on a daily basis.
6.10 Newly Drilled Boreholes
The borehole at Kineni Health Facility and that at Senator Kebaso Secondary School were sunk by the National Water Conservation and Pipeline Co. Ltd under the National Government support to the County. However, in an effort to increase access to safe water to the communities in the vicinity of these two water facilities, the Department of Water laid the distribution lines and constructed storage tanks and water kiosks.
Beneficiaries of the four water supply schemes above are as follows:
A total of 7 boreholes were drilled and 4 boreholes proposed in the county as tabled below. Completion works are on-going for pipeline laying, completion of water kiosks construction, test pumping and electrical power installation .
|Site No.||Site Name||Site Location||Sub-Location||Location||Division / Ward||Max Depth||Remarks|
|1.||Bogwendo||Primary School||Bogwendo||North Kitutu||Magombo / Magombo||250||Borehole drilled and capped in FY2013-2014. Delayed payments resulted in non completion of the project|
|2.||Marindi||Primary School||Bundo||Bogichora||Bogichora||120||Borehole drilled and capped in FY2013-2014 Delayed payments resulted in non completion of the project|
|4.||Nyangena||Tea Buying Centre||Ikobe||Bosamaro Chache||Bosamaro||300||Borehole drilled and capped in FY2013-2014 Delayed payments resulted in non completion of the project|
|5.||Matunwa||Village||Bokurai||Itibo||Itibo||120||Borehole drilled and capped in FY2013-2014 Delayed payments resulted in non completion of the project|
BOREHOLES PROPOSED IN FY 2015-2016
|9||Nyandoche Ibere||Nyansiongo||300||Tendered and awaiting evaluation in FY 2014-2015|
|10||Nyariacho||Gachuba||250||Tendered and awaiting evaluation in FY 2014-2015|
Tendered and awaiting evaluation in FY 2014-2015
|12||Omorare||Ekerenyo||300||Tendered and awaiting evaluation in FY 2014-2015|
|10.||Kenyerere||Primary School||Bonyengwe||Borangi||Magwagwa||320||Hydrogeological survey done|
|Ekerenyo Protected spring with Pump house and sump|
|Nyagwacha water Kiosk at Nyasore market|
|Amakara Cattle Trough|
|Miriri Borehole pump installed|
ISINTA WATER TANK
|Kebabe Girls Sec School Water Tanks|
9.0 Rainwater Harvesting
Rainwater harvesting technology for increasing/improving access to safe drinking water to our communities, and more particularly to our schools and health facilities in the county.
This financial year the department was able to finance and complete roof harvesting for Riomego secondary school with 3no. 10,000 litre plastic tanks complete with low level platform and water points.
10.0 Bilateral donor support for Water Supply and Sewerage Works
With donor support from Orio/KfW, and from the Governments of the Netherlands, Germany and WSTF, respectively, Nyamira and Keroka Water Supply Schemes are currently undergoing major rehabilitation works the aim of which is to boost water production.
KEROKA WATER SUPPLY
Funded through LVWATSAN II by African Development Bank to the tune of kshs 366,million in for construction of a complete new water supply aimed at increasing production from the current 300m3/day to 3000m3/day to serve an ultimate population of 59,400 persons. An earlier emergency repair ( short term intervention) were carried out at a cost kshs 31 million to the old water supply.
NYAMIRA WATER SUPPLY
Already, repairs/rehabilitations at our treatment plant and intake unit in Nyamira, including erection of a 108,000-liter capacity elevated pressed steel storage tank, construction of 2 No. communal water kiosks at Nyabite Market, funded by Water Services Trust Fund. As part of these rehabilitations, a 4-km water pipeline trenching and laying is complete from Nyamira towards Nyamaiya to cater for more people that are currently not served.
The Government of Netherlands, in collaboration with the Kenya National Government, through Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB) is funding the development of Bonyunyu Dam to a tune of Kshs: 6.6 billion. The project is to harness Gucha river to benefit communities in both Nyamira and Kisii Counties. Already, the Government of Netherlands and Kenya National Government, have allocated Kshs 28.0 million each (i.e. a total of Kshs: 56.0 million) for feasibility studies on the planned project. This exercise has already commenced and is being conducted by an international consulting firm that was competitively identified as per the bilateral rules and regulations that govern such engagements between donor and recipient governments.
ü Time to collect water reduced in those schemes with distribution networks
ü Queuing at water sources reduced as people collect water from nearby water kiosks
ü Turbidity of water stabilized where springs have been protected
ü Distances to collect water significantly reduced in project areas
ü Occurrence of water related diseases significantly reduced
The county in the year 2013/2014 constructed 17no medium water supplies ,15no springs and 7no boreholes which on completion will increase the number of households served by clean safe water by 6250
10. Public Awareness and Participation
The constitution mandates county governments to allow open public participation. Public was consulted during preparation of the CIDP and their input was taken into consideration in giving out names and project priorities in each area. The department”s annual development plans are subjected to public input at the Ward / Sub-County forums before implementation.
11. Expenditure and Budgetary Allocations
Before implementation of the projects meetings are held with the beneficially communities and roles of each actor is defined . Once this has been accepted an MOU is drawn where the community is responsible for taking over the project once completed. The community members take over all operation and maintenance activities with the supervision of the department. This therefore frees the county from running the schemes as the communities pay for the recurrent costs of the project and this therefore allows the county to focus more on development of new water projects and expansion of the existing ones.
12. Future plans
v Enhance community participation from start to completion of project.
v Use of more adaptable and appropriate technologies in water supply systems
v Enforce catchment protection rules that are participatory .
v Use of participatory monitoring and evaluation in project management
v Involve all gender in all water activities.
13.Risks and Mitigations Measures
|S/No||Risks / Challenges||Mitigations Measures|
|1||Environmental degradation||Community sensitization and involvement in protection of water catchments areas.|
|2||Encroachment in water catchments||
Community Participation in the management of water resources through formulation of Water Resource Users Association and collaborate with WARMA to form WRUAs for catchment protection
Mobilize more resources from partners-NGOs, private sector; donors and user community
|4||Project sustainability||Capacity building of management committees on best practices. Community participation in management of facilities. Payment of water user fees.|
|5||Land for facilities||Negotiations and seeking for funds to buy land for facilities like land for sewerage treatment works|
14. Methodologies, Strategies and Approaches
To Provide Engineering and Organizational Services to the Community and General Public.
v ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES
- Socio-economic surveys
- Soil surveys
- Hydrological surveys
- Environmental Impact Assessments Survey
- Hydrogeological surveys / Geophysical for Boreholes/Dams
v ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
v Integration and co-ordination of all collaborators/stakeholders.
v Effective participatory monitoring and evaluation of projects.
v Taking charge and efficient use of project resources.
v Promote gender sensitive technology and enhance gender participation in planning and development.
The department uses participatory approach in community development.
15. Performance checks
v Timeliness- projects are completed within set contract period.
v Quality – High standards are not compromised and meet internationally recognized standards.
v Cost- costs are contained and reasonable and within budget
v Contractors are paid on time to avoid litigation